Iron & steel applications

    Concepts for converters.

    The selection of refractory products for converter linings requires an intensive study of the operating conditions at the plants of our customers. Hereby, the installation conditions, the converter's condition, and the time frame for installation must also be taken into account.

    Depending on the lining zone, the causes of wear can be very different. However, the main causes of wear are thermal, chemical and/or mechanical.
    Bottom purging and bath agitation result in wear of the refractory material due to erosion. Therefore, highly abrasion resistant materials are used. In addition, mechanical wear can occur during charging. Good repair options are available, particularly with self-flowing hot repair castables such as REFRATECT® G5.

    Bottom joint
    The joint between sidewall and bottom is rammed with castables that must develop very high strengths, e.g. REFRARAM®.

    Lower cone
    See bottom. The sidewall construction generates additional high mechanical loads on the bottom. Repair of the lower cone below the trunnions is more complicated. Therefore, gunning mixes must be used here.

    Highest temperature stresses. There is no way of slag-coating this area. Therefore, materials with high slag resistance and thermal conductivity are used. Typically, this is the most critical area of a lining, with the highest demands on the refractory material. Maintenance is only possible with gunning mix.

    Scrap metal impact
    High mechanical loads during converter charging. The refractory lining must exhibit high strength and high fracture elasticity. For extreme loading conditions, materials reinforced with steel fibers are used. Good maintenance options with self-flowing hot repair mixes.
    Slag lines
    There are three slag lines in the converter: a line for the blowing process, a line for sampling/slagging off, and a line for tapping. The overlaps of these lines are described as slag crossover zones. Therefore, materials with high slag resistance and thermal conductivity are used.

    Remaining sidewalls
    Relatively moderate thermal slag attack.

    Taphole area & mouth
    Frequent skull formation and the associated cleaning of the converter mouth lead to high mechanical stresses. Therefore, high strength and a wide temperature range are required. If necessary, specific structural solutions such as mouth blocks are used.

    The refractory material must exhibit maximum abrasion resistance.

    Permanent lining
    The permanent lining should last for several campaigns of the working lining. The main demands placed on the permanent lining are good emergency operating properties.
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